What are FODMAPs?
Fodmap is an acronym for a group of carbohydrates that are poorly digested in those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Accordingly, the low fodmap elimination diet was developed by researchers at Monash University to improve IBS symptoms.
Fodmap stands for Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols.
|Fermentable||Molecules are fermented = IBS symptoms|
|Oligosaccharides||Oligo = many, saccharide = sugar. Chain length sugar molecules such as fructans found in onion, garlic, wheat, rye, barley, inulin, some dried fruit & vegetables. Galactans are found in legumes, beans and some nuts.|
|Disaccharides||Di = two, saccharide = sugar. Lactose is made of two sugar molecules, galactose and glucose. This double sugar is found in milk, yoghurt, some cheese, cream, custard and ice-cream.|
|Monosaccharides||Fructose is a single sugar, with high amounts in some fruits, juices, high-fructose corn syrup, honey & some vegetables.|
|Polyols||Sugar alcohols such as sorbitol and mannitol found in cauliflower, mushrooms, stone fruit & commercially sweetened foods such as mints and gums.|
How do FODMAPs cause symptoms?
Some fodmap foods draw water into the gut, causing diarrhoea. In people with IBS, some of these foods are not absorbed in the small intestine and can pass undigested into the large intestine. As a result, trillions of bacteria ferment the undigested food.
As with any fermentation process, gas and wind are produced, causing bloating, pain, abdominal cramps and sometimes nausea. Excess wind and gas can exert pressure on nerve endings lining the gut, triggering visceral hypersensitivity.
In others, gas production can contribute to constipation as movement of food through the gut is slowed.
What is the low FODMAP diet?
The low fodmap diet is a three step process to determine which foods trigger your symptoms.
There is no blood test for food intolerance. Therefore, this evidence-based diet is used to work out food intolerance in a systematic way.
Is the low FODMAP diet also a Gluten-Free diet?
No. Gluten and fodmaps can be found in some similar foods, but they are different components.
Gluten is a protein found in wheat, rye, barley, triticale and oats.
Fructans are carbohydrates also found in wheat, rye, barley and triticale.
Some foods are not gluten free, but are suitable on the elimination phase. These include: oats, sourdough wheat and spelt breads, malt from barley, gluten as an ingredient, small amounts of wheat (up to ½ slice bread), glucose, dextrose and starch from wheat.
When is the elimination diet recommended?
Your doctor may have advised you to follow a low fodmap diet to help improve your gut symptoms. The diet may also be recommended during an inflammatory bowel flare-up, or pre surgery.
Whatever the reason for following, please ensure that you have guidance form a specialised Dietitian.
Staying on the elimination phase for too long has been shown to be detrimental to gut flora, essentially starving the bacteria of food (pre-biotics).